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Contingency Management
Term used to describe the use of positive reinforcement for promoting behavior change. This term implies that there is a contingent
behavior that is binding: if and only if you do the target behavior, then you will get the reinforcer.

Escalation and Reset
Term used to define a certain kind of incentive strategy in which the benefits increase over time based on consistent behavior change. Reset refers to the “scale” going back to zero if someone reverts to the old behavior , and the person can try again.

Fishbowl Method
Refers to a method for instituting low-cost incentives. Typically, there are draws from a bowl with more small prizes and fewer large prizes, and picks that have no monetary value that say “Good Job” or ” Try Again. “

A reinforcer to motivate or propel forward an individual or group to help achieve a particular goal.

Magnitude of the Reinforcer
Refers to the value of the reinforcer. If you ask people to be abstinent from a particular drug you will need an incentive that can compete with the behavior. Perhaps a disposable cell phone, or a voucher to a sneaker store, not a bag of candy, or a gold star.
Incentives should be desirable for the population.

Acronym for Motivational Incentives to Enhance Drug Abuse Recovery, a project conducted by the CTN (Clinical Trials Netwrok)
which created the research foundation for this Evidence Based Practice. One study in this project involved the use of motivational incentives in drug-free clinics (CTN Study 006) and the other study involved the use of motivational incentives in methadone maintenance clinics (CTN Study 007)

When you hear someone talking about wanting or intending to make a change, it usually means that person is motivated. When
that person makes a change in behavior, we infer that they were motivated to to do so. Similarly, if they go back to the old behavior,
we say that they were not sufficiently motivated.

Motivational Incentives

Term can be used interchangeably with Contingency Management. Refers to the exact same set of principles and techniques
that have traditionally been called Contingency Management (CM). The term indicates the intent of the intervention which is to
enhance motivation for behavior change through the use of incentives.

Operant Conditioning
A term coined by behaviorist B.F. Skinner, it is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishment. An association is made between a behavior and a consequence or reward for that behavior.

Acronym for Promoting Awareness of Motivational Incentives, A NIDA/SAMSHA Blending Product ideal for beginners to use to familiarize themselves with the core concepts of Motivational Incentives. Materials can be downloaded by going to

Individual or group prizes for achieving a particular goal not necessarily with a contingent behavior. Gifts or acknowledgement
for a job well done. For example, a pizza party or an award certificate.

Target Behavior
An administrator or clinican identifies a new behavior for an individual or a group. A target behavior is most useful when it can be easily observed. For example, attendance at counseling is a good target behavior, but thinking more positive thoughts is not. Determining a useful target behavior is an important step in creating motivational incentive programs.

Target Population
The people who will participate in a motivational incentive program. Typically this includes members of a group, caseload, or specific therapy group within an agency.

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